The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2nd, 1848, marked the end of the Mexican-American War. The treaty established a border between Mexico and the United States at the Rio Grande, and Mexico ceded a significant portion of its territory to the US, including present-day California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. Additionally, the US agreed to assume $3.25 million in debts owed by Mexico to American citizens.
The treaty also included provisions for the protection of Mexican citizens who remained in the ceded territories, including the rights to retain their property and to become US citizens if they chose to stay. However, these protections were not always honored, and many Mexican Americans faced discrimination, violence, and forced relocation in the years following the treaty`s signing.
Though the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially ended the war, its legacy was complex and far-reaching. The transfer of such significant territory to the US permanently altered the geopolitical balance of power in the region, and set the stage for conflict and division that would persist for decades to come. Today, the treaty serves as a reminder of the complex and often painful history of US-Mexico relations, and the ongoing struggle for justice and equality faced by many Latinx communities in the US.